“In a country like India, with a large young population, it is imperative to build processes and policies that help raise a well-informed, intelligent, and perceptive future generation.” —Sumanta Datta, MD of Oxford University Press, India
Despite concerns around misinformation and false claims, social media users around the world continue to believe that the information they read and share on platforms like Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook is factually correct, with levels of trust highest in emerging economies. In India, as many as 87% of people who share information from social media are confident in its truthfulness, slightly above the global average of three quarters.
These are some key findings of the The Matter of Fact Report based on the Oxford University Press (OUP) research-led campaign looking at the level of understanding of how truths are identified and sources validated.
The pandemic does appear to have had an impact on people’s perceptions of truth, with around three in four people agreeing that they are now more cautious about the accuracy of the information they encounter – a figure that climbs to over 80% in India, Mexico, and South Africa. The data also shows growing mistrust and scepticism about truthfulness, with 68% saying it has become harder to clarify whether information is factually correct. People in the UK and US are particularly hesitant about putting their trust in a single source, with 17% of Americans and 25% of Britons saying they hadn’t shared information from any source as fact in the last five years.
When it comes to teaching the next generation, many parents rely on knowledge acquired during their childhood (32%). In Mexico, almost 30% of parents said that they used encyclopaedias and non-fiction books. Only half (49%) used the likes of Google, dropping to around a third (34%) in the UK. Other popular sources were educational textbooks and websites, teachers, libraries, with each used by about one in three parents. Notably, parents from India were much more likely than those elsewhere to use social media and WhatsApp when teaching their children, with around 30% citing these sources.
The report further explored trust in institutions and experts. In South Africa, 85% agreed that universities and academic institutions were important upholders of truth, compared to two thirds (65%) in the US and UK (66%). With increased exposure to experts throughout the Covid-19 pandemic, almost half of people globally (48%) expressed trust in information when it was backed up by relevant experts. Post-pandemic, academic research and scientific experiments were thought of as the most likely origin of truth by 31% of people.
Speaking about the research, Nigel Portwood, CEO of Oxford University Press, said: “Differentiating between fact and fiction is harder than ever, with the unprecedented events of the last two years bringing the debate around misinformation and false claims into sharp focus. With an ever-increasing number of sources to turn to for information, from books to academic texts to digital channels, and so many answers available at the touch of a button, it’s no surprise that our research presents a global picture of confusion.
At OUP, we want to help people to make sense of the world around them, encourage them to consult multiple sources, and question what is shared as fact. We believe we have a valuable role to play in championing the importance of quality research and enabling access to accurate, trustworthy information.”
Further, the findings, based on a global study by Oxford University Press (OUP) show that when looking for factual information, 37% turn to social media, rising to 43% of Mexicans and South Africans and 54% of Indians. Britons were less likely to look for facts using social media, with only 16% describing it as a preferred source, compared to nearly three in ten (29%) Americans. Overall, most of us rely heavily on Google and other search engines for information, with two thirds (67%) worldwide and 62% in the UK finding facts this way. Three-quarters of people are confident information they share from social media is accurate.
The study, The Matter of Fact, takes a broad look at how people across the world seek out information and judge its accuracy, drawing on a pool of evidence bolstered by survey data collected from 5,000 people across the UK, the US, South Africa, India, and Mexico. It finds that social media has become central to shaping people’s understanding. More than half (52%) said that when it came to distinguishing fact from fiction, sites like Facebook, YouTube, and Instagram play an important role. At the same time, reliance on books and more traditional means of gathering accurate information has declined. For example, less than a third cited non-fiction books and encyclopaedias as sources when seeking facts.
There were geographical differences in the level of trust people put in social media, with almost 80% of Indian and 60% of Mexican respondents seeing these networks as an important tool for separating fact from fiction, but only 27% taking this view in the UK and 42% in the US. Under 55s were more inclined to believe in the accuracy of the material they shared on social media. While 35% of people aged 25 to 44 said they were ‘very confident’ they were sharing only truthful information on social media, only 13% of over 55s felt the same. Younger people are also more likely to rely on social media as a source of factual information, with over 44% of those in the 25 to 44 age-bracket turning to the platforms compared to just 12% of over 55s.
Other key findings from the report included:
- Globally, 80% of us prefer to consult multiple sources to determine whether something is accurate.
- Half of us still think politicians and government play a significant role in helping us to separate fact from fiction (47%)
- Almost two thirds (65%) agree that facts should be open to interpretation, however this varies across markets with 83% in Indiaand around half for the UK (51%) and US (47%).
Sumanta Datta, MD of Oxford University Press, India, shared his thoughts, “With the growing penetration of mobile phones and easy access to internet, large parts of India, both urban and rural, are connected through social media. Having information available at the touch of a button can be a double-edged sword without responsible and thorough validation of the facts. With over 87% of Indians placing their trust and confidence in information circulating on social media, there is a need to understand the potential impact of factual inaccuracies and misinformation.”