As the New Education Policy 2020 approved by the union cabinet was made public, coming after 34 long years, it naturally excited the whole education sector. Though it will take days together to analyze and comment on the real hits and misses of the document, yet a lot of people gave the initial reactions. Here are some of these reactions:
Perhaps the best sum of the just approved policy comes from Vineet Gupta, founder & trustee, Plaksha University and MD, Jamboree Education, when he says, “As someone who has worked with students looking to go abroad for over 20 years, I must say that one big differentiator in Indian versus international education has been academic flexibility.”
According to him overall, strengthening the school education system, making efforts towards making India as a global education hub and having one regulator brings much-needed focus towards making India an international knowledge superpower. “The NEP 2020 with flexibility and multiple exit-options, including a one-year Master’s program and focus on digital education, will hold us in good stead in the times to come and positively impact future students,” he adds.
Rekha Sethi, Director General, AIMA in her welcoming comments said:
“NEP will remove unnecessary complexity in delivery and regulation of higher education in the country and level the playing field for all students, irrespective of which college they go to – private or government. The establishment of a single regulator for higher education is an excellent step
AIMA also welcomes the permission for top 100 foreign institutes to set up campuses in India. Having the top global colleges in India will reverse the brain drain and also raise the standard of the local colleges.
The multiple exit options from multi-year degree courses is a much needed change and it would open up students’ academic options considerably.”
Prof Mahadeo Jaiswal, Director, IIM Sambalpur: “Allowing global institutes to set up campuses in India is also a positive move as it will increase competition because it will open up our education system and it will also help sustain high talent in the country as students don’t have to move out to pursue education. Changing the pedagogical structure from a 10+2 system to a 5+3+3+4 system is in line with international educational standards. Due to the small structure of our IIMs and IITs, despite having ample talent, they were unable to figure in top 100 institutes of the world. Allowing technical institutes to become multi-disciplinary will help IIMs and IITs to start other departments like medical etc and make their size bigger and allow them to admit more students. This will enable them to compete with the elite institutes of the world and become at par with them in the coming years. Diversification makes education more complete and helps increase intellectual outcome. Overall, the changes have been made according to the global system of education. This will also help attract foreign students to India and help the economy as well.”
Dr. Akhil Shahani, Managing Director, Shahani Group isn’t quite impressed and feels it could have been more innovative: “The New Education Policy should have been implemented years ago to enable India’s education system to catch up with that of other fast-developing nations in Asia. The focus on light government regulation, multidisciplinary institutions and creating equivalence of vocational and academic streams are welcome, but these have been a part of other countries’ education models for years. It would have been good to have some more innovative ideas implemented like recognition of pathway/twinning programs with foreign universities, permission for for-profit firms to set up schools & colleges, allowing corporate CSR funding for primary research in universities and allowing universities to offer online degrees to outside their geographical jurisdiction. As education is a state subject, it is important for the central government to create a mechanism to ensure each state implements these new policies effectively.”
Prof (Dr.) Vishal Talwar, Dean-School of Management, BML Munjal University: “The new education policy announced today is trying to gear up for the changed education reality by extending flexibility, graded levels of autonomy and trying to increase the level of knowledge application along with a broader skillset. One major aspect to look out for will be how this policy is implemented. Something I would like to look out for will be how the common norms for public and private higher education institutions will play out because of the inherent differences in structure and approach.”
Dr Rupamanjari Ghosh, Vice-Chancellor, Shiv Nadar University, Greater Noida is happy about its long term impact: “The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 has the potential to create profound long-term impact, affecting the social and economic fabric of our society — that’s the power of education, particularly given our demography.
The concept of a Multidisciplinary Education & Research University (MERU) will find resonance in our young campus! We welcome the creation of the National Research Foundation (NRF). With freedom comes responsibility. I am particularly appreciative of the forward-looking “common norm for public and private HEIs” — every institution should be held accountable, in a progressive & fair way.
As always, the devil lies in the details, and we will see how to get the NEP 2020 translated to action on ground, true to the spirit of the reforms envisaged to empower the students in the country, to discover and fully develop their unique potentials.”
Pratham Mittal, Head of New Initiatives, LPU : “Government’s focus to build large multidisciplinary institutions is a welcome move and will lead to holistic development of students. We also welcome the move to enable top Indian universities to set up campuses abroad and allow foreign universities to set up campuses in India. This will push everyone to raise standards and improve the quality of higher education in the country. Another aspect that is encouraging is the multiple exit options being offered to students and the tying up of vocational education with higher education. This will certainly help improve India’s low Gross Enrolment Ratio.”
Amit Gainda, CEO, Avanse Financial Services feels there should be reforms on infrastructure front: “NEP’s initiative of bringing foreign university campuses in India is a formidable step towards strengthening the Indian education ecosystem. This will help the students experience the global quality of education in their very own country. These moves will create a symbiotic environment for the educational aspirants to pave a clear path for achieving their educational goals.
Education infrastructure is one of the important parameters which also needs a massive boost from the government authorities. Hence, we look forward to witness some strong reforms on these lines as well. “
Neeti Sharma, Senior Vice President, TeamLease Services : “ One of the key aspects that the policy has addressed is the implementation of the choice based credit system – a multi-disciplinary approach which will provide flexibility to students to choose between programs of choice. It will also allow students to accumulate & retain credits which will enable them to continue their learning process from where they had left, in case they discontinue for some reason. CBCS is a huge step towards improving the employability of the students in the future. However, NEP should have also focused on standardizing an integrated form of learning (using multi classroom approach) which includes on-the-job training, as well. Degree linked apprenticeship is another area which required attention to make our learning ecosystem more holistic.”
Nitin Potdar, Partner, J Sagar Associates welcomes foreign universities: “The provision of E-Courses in regional languages, interdisciplinary courses, staking of credits, autonomy to accredited colleges, high performing Indian universities encouraged to set up campuses in other countries and also top 100 global universities facilitated to operate in India are all steps that would make India a truly global knowledge superpower.”
Prof (Dr.) Manoj K Arora, Vice-Chancellor, BML Munjal University:“It is a very progressive and forward looking policy and will change the landscape of higher education in the country. Multiple exit/entry and the credit bank will give students lot of flexibility in getting educated and earning degrees while they are working. We are moving towards the concept of build your own degree. We believe that we as a university and the country as whole are going to immensely benefit, and look forward to its fair implementation.”
Director & Founder Dr Jitin Chadha‘s Indian School of Business & Finance:“The approval of a new education policy, after over three decades, is certainly a welcome development. Given the centrality of education in nation-building, we certainly think this will help focus efforts in future. This will enable us to create the highest possible quality of human capital, which will be a necessary and key differentiator in the post-COVID world where labour markets will become flatter than ever before.”
Col. (Retd.) Gopal Karunakaran, CEO, Shiv Nadar School:“By co-opting the States to co-create curriculum and setting up a National Education Commission headed by the Prime Minister, the policy has laid a transformational foundation for the education system. The key is in execution, and we look forward to its implementation.”
Akshay Chaturvedi, Founder & CEO LeverageEdu: “With the RTE now extended to 18 years of age, I am supremely confident that we will see a much bigger number of our population pursing higher education. This is by far one of the most defining things to have happened in the Indian Education landscape in the last three decades. We should also use this opportunity to set up collaborations with institutes of excellence abroad, bring them here for their best practices, and have the quality be risen multiple notches too – so that we do indeed live up the Hon’ble Prime Minister’s vision of a $5 Tn economy together with very strong human development!”
Shishir Jaipuria, Co-Chairman, FICCI ARISE; Chairman, Seth Anandram Jaipuria Education Society: “National Education Policy 2020 offers a number of well-reasoned and bold reformative steps in the right direction. It conveys a clear bias for disruptive change to meet the future learning needs. The policy very well addresses most of the critical issues that daunt our current education landscape.
Various change and reform proposals especially in the areas of Early Childhood Education, Teacher Education, Curriculum and Pedagogical Structure, Assessment and Accreditation, Self-Governance and Standardised learning for both private and public schools, if implemented in true ‘letter and spirit’ by all stakeholders shall undoubtedly transform the overall educational ecosystem in the country.
However, with the growing demand of investment required for India to reach SDG 4 by 2030, it would be unrealistic to expect such large investments coming solely from the government and purely philanthropic initiatives. The current regime, has always been strong on reforms to leapfrog sectors in the country. It is time they open up the education sector to private investment that will bring the cost of the education down and help in meeting the diverse needs of the country.”
Rustom Kerawalla, Ampersand Group: “The New Education Policy 2020 is aimed at bringing transformational changes in the Indian education system with a global perspective. The policy has a multi-disciplinary, value-based approach focussing on holistic education along with life-skills with special emphasis on skill development to improve high employability rate among our students.
The policy lays special emphasis on Early Child Care Education (ECCE) and development by including a play-based multi-faceted curriculum. The universalisation of ECCE will lay the foundation for the development of every child and will be able to honour unique skill-sets at an early age.
The integration of co-curricular subjects at par will help students honour their hobbies and skills and make value addition in the areas of preference. Project-based learning, vocational learning at an early age, and learning of life skills and inclusion of technology will help a child realise ambitions, gain multi-dimensional knowledge and universal skills and lay the foundation for higher education.”
Vishnu Kartik CEO Xperiential Learning Systems and Director The Heritage, Gururgram: “The NEP clearly acknowledges the need to embrace output focused reform rather than input focused reforms. The devil is in the details, but the new NEP has touched upon some key levers which will have high impact on student learning levels. One is of course bringing on ECCE into NCF. Another is the decision to reduce the curriculum into core. This will provide significant opportunity to focus on critical skills and capacities and would be gateway reform on curriculum and assessments. What is heartening is to see many reforms focused on assessments especially on National Assessment Centre and tracking of student progress on learning outcomes. These will bring in much needed attention and accountability on learning progress”
Rohit Manglik, CEO, EduGorilla : “The draft New Education Policy is a roadmap for ensuring economic development through a robust education system in tune with demands of the industry. The impetus to technology and research and interdisciplinary and multilingual approach is a great enabler to ensure equity in access to education. The elimination of rigid streams in secondary education will ensure that no career option is restricted to students due to subject specialization. The relook at the grading system was the need of the hour to ensure fair and accurate analysis of students’ potential. The revamping of board examination and autonomy to higher educational institutions are welcome measures. While much will hinge on the ground implementation, the draft NEP has made a great start to reform the Indian education system.”
Santanu Mishra, Co-Founder and Executive Trustee Smile Foundation: The introduction of the New National Education Policy 2020 is a very well-timed move by Government keeping in mind the current challenges the sector is facing. Not only does the policy look at addressing the key concern areas like higher education and pedagogy but also refines the structure of reporting through the National Education Commission, which will be headed by the Prime Minister himself.”
Rameswar Mandali, Founder & CEO , SKILL MONKS: “The restructuring of higher education institutions that aims to become multidisciplinary institutions with the focus to have 3,000 or more students will raise the standards of higher education in India by reassuring opportunities to more students. Furthermore, NEP’s intent to increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio including vocational education from 26.3% to 50% will drive positive change in our economy. New approach of skill based learning from an early foundation level of academics will help learners identify skill sets much earlier thereby empowering students to be future ready.”
Dr. Bijaya Kumar Sahoo, Founder at SAI International Education Group and Advisor Govt of Odisha: “The document is based on foundational pillars of access, affordability, equity, quality and accountability. With the flexibility for the choice of subject across streams it is aimed at building skills in their subjects of interest. The three language early foundational based learning will improve focus on Indian Classical Languages. Each State is proposed to have a State School Regulatory Authority to monitor the School education.”
Sharad Mehra, CEO- Asia Pacific, Global University Systems: “NEP has an inclusive and balanced outlook which gives emphasis to arts, culture, creative, STEM Courses, in addition to blended, multi-disciplinary and immersive learning as well as augmenting digital learning. The policy has a sharp global outlook with an emphasis on 360 degree learning, advancing life skills and focusing on talent generation. This will give students more exposure to best global practices in education and enrich their learning experience.”
Rishabh Khanna, Cognitive Scientist and Founder of Suraasa: “The good part is that the policy has come as a plan and not just promise based statements. The difficult part is to jump from the current system to this system and take along millions of stakeholders, many of whom might need to be completely re-trained. In fact teachers will see the biggest change and will have to transform at both content as well as pedagogy level to survive in this new world order”.
Nitish Jain, President, SP Jain School of Global Management: ” The policy recognises the need of the hour, and places increased focus on technology-based learning and application through virtual labs and divyang-friendly softwares, which if implemented effectively, will lead to an equitable access to education while creating a more future-ready workforce. Allowing Indian universities to set up offshore campuses as well as facilitating foreign universities to operate in India, will not only increase the quality of education, but also strengthen India’s position on the map as a global education destination.”
Rukshad Davar, Partner at Majmudar and Partners International Lawyer Firm: “As a part of the National Education Policy announced today, a new law will be introduced to facilitate top foreign universities to set-up in India. The law will provide special dispensations to foreign universities from a regulatory, governance and content standpoints. While 100% FDI is permitted in the education sector for many years now, foreign universities have not entered India due to restrictive conditions. We hope that the new law will make it feasible for foreign universities to enter the Indian market. This move will facilitate access to quality higher education.”
Dr. Sankar UV, Director of The Sports School: ” The initiative of putting equal emphasis on arts and science subjects is something that was the need of the hour and will help students in exploring their interests with much more enthusiasm and gives them a chance to actualize their capabilities. I feel this is a step in the right direction as it encourages development of creative and artistic temperaments along with scientific. It is too early to comment on whether or not this initiative leads to actual equalization of both streams, but it will definitely sow the seeds of the change in popular mindsets of parents, teachers and students.”
Byju Raveendran, Founder & CEO, BYJU’S : ” We believe that tech-enabled learning is the best way to achieve scale as well as maintain uniform quality irrespective of geography or physical infrastructure availability. Emphasis on critical thinking, creativity and stronger conceptual understanding will encourage students to become self-motivated learners. This is much needed for students to acquire skills that will prepare them for the unseen jobs of tomorrow.
India is home to the world’s largest K-12 population and the universalization of early school education, the push to improve gross enrollment ratio and a renewed focus on new life skills such as coding will help create a stronger pipeline of future leaders in India.”
Neelima Kamrah Principal KIIT World School Gurgaon: ” Multidisciplinary and a holistic approach to education across the sciences, social sciences, arts, humanities, and sports will help create well rounded citizens who will not just have strong cognitive structures but will also excel at physical, social and emotional skills as well.”
Randhir Kumar, Founder and Chief Mentor, BasicFirst Learning OPC Pvt. Ltd.: “Looking at the pedagogical changes, the introduction of vocational courses alongside core concepts will ensure holistic development of the child beyond just academics, equipping them with the mandatory skills for the demands of the industry. The change of focus from English is a strategic move to promote national inclusiveness through use of mother tongue to communicate until class 5. Truly, there’s a lot to be appreciated in the NEP 2020 that will touch and transform many Indian lives.”
Prateek Shukla-Co-Founder & CEO, Masai School: “We are very excited about coding being introduced formally at grade 6. It would not only prepare the students for Industry 4.0, but also equip them with problem solving skills at the right age which will be valuable in all areas of life. This also ties in to change in approach towards separation of streams, today roles are merging and we need cross functional thinking and capabilities in the next generation of the workforce.
However, the policy changes will result in expected outcomes only if we have quality teachers – interested in the roles. As of today, there’s a huge shortfall in skilled & up to date teaching workforce. The career path of teaching requires a major revamp to attract the right kind of people.”
Divya Lal, Managing Director of Fliplearn: ” Technology will now play a much bigger role not just in planning and administration, but pedagogy, content, tutelage and assessment; which is both futuristic and transformative to say the least. The increased focus on technology, digital empowerment of schools will encourage institutions to upgrade their technology infrastructure and offerings to more virtual and seamlessly integrated platforms. The virtual platforms/ labs will also bring learning alive for students with emphasis on visual and experiential components than Rote learning. With reduced insularity and greater freedom in students selecting their subjects of choice, the focus will return to holistic learning of all subjects, rather than a bent towards Maths and Sciences.”
Prajodh Rajan, Co-Founder & Group CEO- EuroKids International: “We laud the inclusion & focus given to early childhood care and education (ECCE) as it brings to light the importance of early learning. Early childhood care and education play a vital role in building a foundation for lifelong learning and well-being for every child. The national mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy is the need of the hour. This comprehensive education policy, now aligned to global standards, will help the country build versatile, skilled and forward-looking future citizens.”
Sajid Khan, Head of International Development, Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) : “New Education policy 2020 will transform the higher education sector and empower our young generation with the right knowledge, skills, values and competencies, thereby laying a strong foundation for our economic growth and supporting Aatmanirbhar Bharat.”
Som Sharma (Founding Chairman, Edu Brain Academy: “The relook at the grading system was the need of the hour to ensure fair and accurate analysis of students’ potential. The revamping of board examination and autonomy to higher educational institutions are welcome measures. The policy reduces bureaucratic hurdles, sets a clear direction for higher education in the country and opens up new doors for students. The government’s focus to build large multidisciplinary institutions is a welcome move and will lead to holistic development of students. In addition, a new system of self, peer, and teacher assessment will give parents and children a 360-degree progress report imbibed with new skills learned during the academic year. Also, the inclusion of professional and choice-based disciplines as part of the higher education will give students a whole new dimension towards honouring soft-skills.”
Kavita Sahay Kerawalla, Vice Chairperson, VIBGYOR Group of Schools: “The NEP 2020 gives much-needed focus to Early Child Care Education (ECCE) with new plans to integrate the best possible national and international practices. Inclusion of play-based and activity-based learning for children between the ages of 3-6 with a focus on music and movement, arts and crafts, and other stimulating activities is a positive step among early childhood educators.“
Ashwin Malik Meshram , Spinnaker Analytics, Boston, IITian & Education Reformer: “Like most initiatives by government in recent times, the policy is vague, the outcomes not measurable, and no mention whatsoever of details and specifics on how the policy will be implemented. Mentioning the 6% of GDP target for the education budget is futile if we are not setting an allocation target for this year or the method to achieve the ambitious target in the coming years.
Change for the sake of change is pointless. The gap in education quality and learning outcomes has always been executional, not the inefficiency or inadequacy of the current 10+2 structure. I see no reason to expand the gamut to include playschool, nursery or kindergarten classes within the ambit of formal education. The existing 10+2 model is not the reason our education quality or reach is suffering. The real reasons remain – poor execution, less-than-desired quality of teachers, awful infrastructure, tight school budgets, poor teacher attendance, and very importantly low teacher salaries.
The policy seems aspirational, it references and glosses over high-level desirable attributes, but doesn’t bother to work out the feasibility or the methodology to make the plan work.”
Dr D K Aggarwal, President, PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry: “New Education Policy 2020 is a revolutionary step in the history of education system by making way for school and college education to become more equitable, inclusive, holistic, flexible and multidisciplinary suiting to the needs of 21st Century. The focus of the Centre and the States to work together to increase the public investment in Education sector to reach 6% of GDP at the earliest will go a long way to strengthen education sector of the country in the coming times
Increased exposure to vocational education, vocational exposure at early ages in middle and secondary school, internship opportunities to learn vocational subjects throughout Grades 6-12, among others will promote practical education and exposure at early age and make students ready for real world.”
Shaheem Rahiman, CEO, Atria University: “We are most impressed with the praiseworthy move to increase academic flexibility by pushing a multi-disciplinary approach to college education, a four-year UG program and providing students the option of multiple exit-points in their higher education journeys. We, at Atria, believe that students should be empowered to choose their own learning pathways, explore their interests and graduate with the skills and passion to excel in the career of their choice. In line with the NEP 2020, we seek to build a forward-looking university. We hope that the new policy is implemented strongly and are confident that India will take big strides towards becoming a global education hub with this move.”
Krishna Kumar, Founder & CEO, Simplilearn: “This is indeed a progressive move which will aid in creating a skilled workforce for the future, closing in on the demand supply gap…Another highlight is the focus on the use of technology for learning, teaching and the introduction of e-content with a special focus on regional languages. The pandemic introduced a wave of demand for online learning and with this move, there are new growth opportunities which await the edtech sector. Edtech players will now look at new paths to expand their learner base, explore new markets especially in Tier 2 & 3 cities, and introduce new offerings which will cater to the needs of this upcoming consumer segment. The future holds a lot of promise and is for sure to welcome the birth of new edtech players.”
Vinod Tiwari, Regional Mentor of Change(ATL), Gujarat, Niti Aayog: “The NEP 20202 is a big leap to reform the education system. The major game-changer will be a new structured curriculum 5+3+3+4, calling of 100 foreign universities, focus on Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Group, Formulization of local language, Imaginative and flexible curriculum, Option to run ODL and online program, Multi-disciplinary and many more. Although these policies seem to be exaggerative, it is being established keeping in view the Industrial Revolution 4.0 and new skills set requirement. However, it is going to benefit the new generation for dominating the global education and helping to make the revolution for new India. We look forward to more guidelines for quick implementation.”
Rohan Parikh (Managing Director The Green Acres Academy): ”The new education policy is a well written and forward-looking policy that has taken into account the views of every stakeholder in the field. The focus should now be on a strong push to implement these reforms and have a positive impact on the ground.”
Hariharan PN, ITM Group of Institutions: “In the higher education space, much awaited Higher Education Commission of India is being set up to replace multiple agencies. The policy also allows top 100 universities across the world to set up campuses in India. This will improve both academic quality and delivery of Indian universities due to competition from foreign universities.”
Amit Bansal – Founder & CEO, WizKlub:
” The focus to build Higher Order Thinking Skills such as logical thinking, critical thinking and problem-solving skills in early years is a step in the right direction. These skills are going to be the most important skills for success in professional life in the coming decade. Also, since these skills are best developed by the age of 14 years, the NEP vision to include these skills in foundational and preparatory years is a great decision.To move from knowledge dissemination to skill building would be a challenge but a challenge that needs to be solved sooner than later. The policy is a timely step in that direction.”
Rajiv Shah, CEO & Director, NMIMS Global Access School for Continuing Education:
“We applaud the Indian government’s vision to increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) from 25.7% currently to 50% by 2030. The government acknowledges that online and distance education will play a key role in achieving this goal by enhancing the offerings, improving access and providing increased opportunities for lifelong learning. This goal will boost the Indian economy and the per capita income.”
Dr Sanjay Gupta, Vice Chancellor, World University of Design: “It’s a very welcome step because it has brought back the focus on education, especially on building multidisciplinarity and making the education holistic. In fact, many steps which has been announced were long awaited, like the multiple entry and exit points, the credit-based system, and the removal of M. Phil. Many other initiatives have been announced and we are looking forward to receiving more details, especially on the common entrance exam, which is a very good initiative. It is anticipated that all norms would become common for government and private institutions. However, one has to consider that private universities operate under very different circumstances, with almost no support from the government for research or building laboratories or hiring world class faculty. In that context, the capping of fees would be something we would be anxiously looking forward to”.
Saiju Aravind, Founder of EduBrisk Knowledge Solutions: “We lived with an obsolete education system for nearly 3 to 4 decades. Our education system of the mid 20th century was far too removed from the reality and needs of the present one. The curriculum and content were too disintegrated to comprehend and further, it lacked the lustre and festivity of inclusiveness. It was devoid of the true insights of the lifelong learning which ancient India epitomised, nor did it embrace the modern pedagogy leveraged by ICT (AI/ML), data science and neuroscience. A revamping of the Educational Policy was long overdue and it is a great relief that the National Education Policy is finally out in 2020. Further, it is heartening to see that the policy is also addressing many key concerns mentioned above. The challenge would be in the effective implementation as mentioned in the policy (Sl 26) itself.”
Sahil Agarwal, Co-Founder and CEO, Rishihood University: “The new education policy has brought much awaited reforms for a long-term overhaul of the system. In higher education, the college affiliation system which prevented curriculum innovations will be phased out. This will allow industry-linked curriculum and faster modifications based on industry’s needs, therefore helping the students in placements. A common aptitude test for undergraduate admissions will ease off the pressure from students to prepare for multiple exams. The CAT will be designed in a way that most universities can identify the student skill set for admissions from the same test.
The policy does not mention anything on allowing foreign investments or for-profit education. This reform continues to lack in our system.”
Saumil Majmudar, Co-founder, CEO and Managing Director, Sportz Village: “We expect that sports and play, will be delivered and assessed with the same rigor and structure as core academic subjects, thereby ensuring all children experience the magic of Play and Sport, and we develop a nation of healthier and fitter children through the school system. The emphasis on Vocational Education is also a great step towards all-round development of children and we hope children will be able to choose Physical Activity and Sports as a Vocational subject. We look forward to the translation of the policy to reflect in a more playful, fun and engaging school environment for children while meeting the adult goals of learning outcomes.”